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La Respiración en la Técnica Pilates

Posted on July 7, 2015 at 1:40 PM

La respiración es una de las claves principales en cada ejercicio del Método Pilates, siendo siempre coordinada con el movimiento que se ejecuta, de tal modo que contribuya a dirigir la energía a la zona que se está movilizando.

Una buena respiración ayuda a controlar los movimientos y facilita la estabilización de la columna vertebral para el trabajo global de las extremidades y también la movilización de la propia columna vertebral. Cada movimiento debe coordinarse con una respiración específica, según cada tipo de ejercicio.

En la respiración de Pilates se inhala por la nariz y se exhala por la boca, lo cual permite una activación de la musculatura profunda abdominal, muy superior que si se exhala por la nariz .

Existen varios tipos de respiración, pero fundamentalmente es el diafragma el encargado de ella. El uso del diafragma incrementa el espacio vertical del tórax, forzando la inhalación debida al cambio de presión interna. Esto está asociado a la estabilidad del tronco. Richardson ha descubierto una relación entre espaldas sanas, movimiento eficiente y respiración diafragmática. “El enlace existente entre los músculos profundos del tronco, el diafragma y los patrones de la respiración presenta otra área de cuestiones inexplicadas en la función de los músculos y en las alternativas de reeducación.” (Hodges P, Gandevia S, Richardson C: American Physiological Society 83:753-760).

La especial disposición del diafragma proporciona un enlace que transmite fuerzas de forma eficiente a través de todo el cuerpo. El par de fuerzas de sinergia existente entre el diafragma, el suelo pélvico, la región abdominal y la torácica, posibilita una conexión que es un componente esencial de la ordenación en secuencias de los movimientos Pilates. Se cree que existe una relación entre la organización de la pelvis, el transverso del abdomen, el músculo torácico transverso, el diafragma y otros músculos respiratorios menores, en lo referente al mantenimiento de una postura saludable y la prevención de dolor mecánico de la parte inferior de la espalda (zona lumbar).

La respiración también facilita la articulación de la columna vertebral. La inspiración facilita en general la articulación de la columna vertebral hacia la extensión, mientras que la espiración facilita la articulación de la columna vertebral hacia la flexión. El correcto uso de este mecanismo en los diferentes ejercicios de Pilates proporciona seguridad y previene lesiones.

extension dorsal Durante la inhalación las costillas se abren hacia fuera y hacia arriba, al mismo tiempo que la columna vertebral tiende a la extensión, logrando con ello llenar los pulmones de oxígeno al máximo, con lo cual si deseo trabajar la liberacion de una articulacion toracica con poca movilidad hacia la extensión, es en la inspiración, el momento que me permite articular la columan dorsal hacia la extensión.

La exhalación, por su parte, facilita la contracción de los músculos abdominales ya que anatómicamente durante ella se produce un encogimiento a nivel de la caja torácica "hacia dentro y hacia abajo". Al exhalar el diafragma se eleva generando así un empuje de los músculos abdominales hacia dentro, lo cual genera la estabilización del centro y a ejercicios abdominalessu vez la protección de la columna lumbar.

La acción antagónico sinérgica es indispensable para la eficacia del diafragma. Los músculos abdominales se contraen mientras que el diafragma se relaja en la espiración. Por esta razón es importante que en los ejercicios en los que se necesite la flexión del tronco, como el caso de los abdominales tipo bolita, se hagan durante la exhalación así ayudamos a activar el centro y enseñamos al ejecutante a usar la musculatura abdominal y no sustituir con otros grupos musculares como por ejemplo la tensión de la musculatura anterior del cuello.

La espiración durante el movimiento de flexión del tronco, permitirá lograr una mayor estabilidad lumbo-pélvica, ya que permitirá activar el transverso abdominal, en el momento mas duro del ejercicio.

Importante: nunca sostendremos la respiración al ejecutar un movimiento, ni generaremos "efecto valsalva", ya que esto contribuye al aumento de la presión sanguínea, lo cual es totalmente contraindicado en el trabajo con el Método Pilates.

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